Current and Future Salt Consumption in Battery Production
Salt consumption in batteries in the 2022 – 2030 period is roughly estimated from battery capacities as published in the context of Li-ion batteries. The graph shows a battery storage capacity forecast by Bloomberg as of 2019.
Three sodium-based battery types were discussed:
- Na-Ion Battery (https://saltmarketinfo.com/wp-admin/post.php?post=661&action=edit)
- Sodium Nickel Chloride Battery (https://saltmarketinfo.com/wp-admin/post.php?post=666&action=edit)
- Sodium Sulfur Battery(https://saltmarketinfo.com/wp-admin/post.php?post=673&action=edit)
The first two battery types can be used in stationary storage, and in electromobility. CATL has started mass production of Na-ion cells, and is mixing Na-ion cells with Li-ion cells in battery packs. Sodium-ion batteries are used where high energy density is not critical, but cost-efficiency and higher life cycles are important. This is the case for energy storage, light electric vehicles, low-to-medium level new energy vehicles, and construction machinery. Penetration rate is estimated at 5% in passenger EV’s, 10% in commercial EV’s and E-buses, and 15% in stationary storage. Battery storage capacity of sodium-ion batteries could reach about 120 GWh by 2030. The production of these batteries would require 150 thousand tons of salt. For the sodium nickel chloride- and the sodium sulfur batteries, main end uses are in stationary energy storage. If one assumes a 15% of market share in the stationary energy storage segment, the two battery types together could account for about 20 GWh of battery storage capacity by 2030, and an additional 20 thousand tons of salt consumption could be expected. All sodium-based batteries together would consume around 170 thousand tons of salt. This is equivalent to about half a per mil of todays’ overall salt consumption. At present consumption of salt in the production of batteries is negligible. The estimated 200 installations of Na-S batteries worldwide, and an estimated similar number of sodium nickel chloride batteries with combined capacities around 500 MWh, use about 500 tons of salt. The mass production of the sodium-ion cells at CATL is just about to start, and salt consumption for all salt-based batteries together is probably still below 1 thousand tons.